Looking to year end
I know it’s a busy time. But it’s not too soon to start thinking about taxes.
Many questions about the new administration have come my way, including questions about new tax proposals. Joe Biden’s plan is aggressive, but it may not get out of the starting gate if the Republicans hold the Senate. As you probably know, two early January runoffs in Georgia will determine the fate of the upper chamber.
However, there is bipartisan support for what might be called The SECURE Act 2.0. Recall that the SECURE Act, which passed Congress earlier this year, updated rules and regulations governing retirement accounts.
There are plenty of tweaks that we might see. For example, might RMDs for IRAs rise to 75? Could we see bigger catch-up provisions? Or greater flexibility for individuals 60 and older who are attempting to save for retirement?
Maybe, but let’s not jump too far into the future. Any possible changes are in the planning stage. Congress is more likely to focus on COVID relief early next year. Besides, comprehensive bills take time to wind through Congress. Instead, let’s focus on tying up loose ends as the year comes to a close.
Before we jump into year-end planning, I want to stress to you that it’s my job to partner with you. I can’t overemphasize this, and I would be happy to review your options. As with any tax matters, feel free to consult with your tax advisor.
9 tax facts and tips to save you money
1. Tax brackets and tax rates have changed. Every year, the tax brackets for taxable income are adjusted based on the rate of inflation. Table 1 illustrates your marginal tax bracket based on taxable income.
Table 1: Tax brackets for 2020
|Rate||For Single Individuals||For Married Individuals Filing Joint Returns||For Heads of Households|
|10%||Up – $9,875||Up – $19,750||Up – $14,100|
|12%||$9,876 – $40,125||$19,751 – $80,250||$14,101 – $53,700|
|22%||$40,126 – $85,525||$80,251 – $171,050||$53,701 – $85,500|
|24%||$85,526 – $163,300||$171,051 – $326,600||$85,501 – $163,300|
|32%||$163,301 – $207,350||$326,601 – $414,700||$163,301 – $207,350|
|35%||$207,351 – $518,400||$414,701 – $622,050||$207,351 – $518,400|
|37%||$518,401 or more||$622,051 or more||$518,401 or more|
Source: Tax Foundation, IRS
2. The increased standard deduction has simplified filing for many. The standard deduction for married filing jointly rises to $24,800 for tax year 2020, up $400 from last year.
For single taxpayers and married individuals filing separately, the standard deduction rises to $12,400, up $200 from 2019. For heads of households, the standard deduction will increase to $18,650, up $300.
The personal exemption for tax year 2020 remains at 0, as it was for 2019. The elimination of the personal exemption was a provision in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. (IRS)
3. You may be eligible to take a $2,000 tax credit for each child. The credit is available to parents as long as your child is younger than 17 years of age on the last day of the tax year, generally Dec 31. It begins to phase out at $200,000 of modified adjusted gross income for single filers. The amount doubles to $400,000 for married couples filing jointly.
4. Limitations on itemized deductions. If cash expenses that are eligible to be itemized fail to top the standard deduction, skip Schedule A and take the standard deduction. It’s that simple.
If you itemize, please be aware that state and local income taxes, property taxes, and real estate taxes are capped at $10,000. Anything above cannot be written off against income.
However, the IRS said it will grant a workaround for some taxpayers.
Taxpayers that use pass-through entities (PTE), including S-corporations, some limited liability companies, and partnerships may qualify depending on your state. This workaround is not available for sole proprietors and single-member LLCs.
According to the American Institute of CPAs, the PTE may deduct the entity’s state and local income taxes as a tax on the business at the federal level and avoid the $10,000 cap.
State proposals would also provide that the owner may claim a credit on the owner’s state income tax return for the owner’s distributive share of the taxes paid by the PTE.
It’s a complex maneuver that is only allowed by a few states (NOTE: please see articles above, which list states that are included), but it can help reduce your tax liability if you qualify.
For charitable contributions, you may generally deduct up to 50% of your adjusted gross income, but 20% and 30% limitations apply in some cases. (IRS)
In 2020, the IRS allows all taxpayers to deduct the total qualified unreimbursed medical care expenses for the year that exceeds 7.5% of their adjusted gross income
5. Penalties have been eliminated for not maintaining minimum essential health care coverage, according to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.
6. Estates of decedents who die during 2020 have a basic exclusion amount of $11,580,000, up from $11,400,000 for estates of decedents who died in 2019.
The annual exclusion for gifts is $15,000 for calendar year 2020, as it was in 2019.
7. The maximum credit allowed for adoptions for tax year 2020 is the amount of qualified adoption expenses up to $14,300, up from $14,080 for 2019.
8. Changes to the AMT–the alternative minimum tax. Tax reform failed to do away with the alternative minimum tax (AMT), but it snags far fewer people.
The AMT exemption amount for tax year 2020 is $72,900 and begins to phase out at $518,400 ($113,400 for married couples filing jointly for whom the exemption begins to phase out at $1,036,800).
The 2019 exemption amount was $71,700 and began to phase out at $510,300 ($111,700, for married couples filing jointly for whom the exemption began to phase out at $1,020,600).
It’s confusing, but most tax software programs run both calculations for you.
9. There is a 20% deduction for business owners. The new law gives “flow-through” business owners, such as sole proprietorships, LLCs, partnerships, and S-corps, a 20% deduction on income earned by the business.
This is a very valuable benefit to business owners who aren’t classified as C-corps and can’t benefit from 2018’s reduction in the corporate tax rate to 21% from 35%.
Individual taxpayers and some trusts and estates may be entitled to a deduction of up to 20% of their net qualified business income (QBI) from a trade or business, including income from a pass-through entity.
In general, total taxable income in 2020 must be under $163,300 for single filers or $326,600 for joint filers to qualify.
The deduction does not reduce earnings subject to the self-employment tax.
There are limitations to the new deduction and some aspects are complex. Feel free to check with your tax advisor to see how you may qualify. Most tax software programs will run the calculation, too.
The points above are simply a summary. You may see provisions that will benefit you. You may also see potential pitfalls. If you have any questions or concerns, let’s have a conversation.
9 Smart Investment and Financial Planning Moves to Consider
1. Review your income or portfolio strategy. Are you reaching a milestone in your life such as retirement or a change in your personal circumstances? Has your tolerance for taking risk changed? We experienced historic volatility this year. The broad-based S&P 500 Index lost over 30% in one month. The sell-off was steep and violent but short-lived.
As November came to close, the major market indexes had recaptured prior highs. It’s a testament to adhering to the long-term financial plan.
Did you take volatility in stride, or feel any uneasiness? A pandemic, a shuttering of the economy, and a swiftly falling stock market are bound to create some anxieties. But if you experienced sleepless nights or sought the safety of cash, now may be the time to re-evaluate risk and your approach.
One of my goals has always been to remove the emotional component from the investment plan. You know, the one that encourages investors to load up on stocks when the market is soaring or one that prods us to sell when volatility surfaces.
The hard data and my own personal experience tells me that the shortest distance between an investor and his/her financial goals is adherence to a well-diversified holistic financial plan.
2. Rebalancing your portfolio. Despite the rollercoaster ride, overall market performance has been good this year. U.S. equities have provided a nice lift to your portfolio, but you may have too much exposure to stocks as we approach 2021.
If that’s the case, you may need to trim back on equity exposure. However, you may want to wait until January in non-retirement accounts so that any gains are booked in tax year 2021.
3. Take stock of changes in your life and review insurance and beneficiaries. Let’s be sure you are adequately covered. At the same time, it’s a good idea to update beneficiaries if the need has arisen.
4. Tax loss deadline. You have until December 31 to harvest any tax losses and/or offset any capital gains. It may be advantageous to time sales in order to maximize tax benefits this year or next. You may also want to book gains and offset with any losses.
But be aware that short- and long-term capital gains are taxed at different rates, and don’t run up against the wash-sale rule (IRS Publication 550) that could disallow a capital loss.
A wash sale occurs when you sell a security at a loss and then purchase that same security or “substantially identical” securities within 30 days, either before or after the sale date. (See Schwab: “A Primer on Wash Sales”)
5. Mutual funds and taxable distributions. This is best described using an example.
If you buy a mutual fund on December 15 and it pays its annual dividend and capital gain on December 18, you will be responsible for paying taxes on the entire yearly distribution, even though you held the fund for just three days.
It’s a tax sting that’s best avoided because the net asset value hasn’t changed. It’s usually a good idea to wait until after the annual distribution to make the purchase.
6. Required minimum distributions (RMDs) are minimum amounts the owner of most retirement account must withdraw annually.
Please note that the CARES Act eliminated the RMD requirement in 2020. But let’s go through RMD requirements at a high level.
The SECURE Act made major changes to RMD rules. If you reach age 70½ in 2020 or later you must take your first RMD by April 1 of the year after you reach 72 (IRS: Retirement Plan and IRA Required Minimum Distributions FAQs).
If you reached the age of 70½ in 2019 the prior rule applies.
For all subsequent years, including the year in which you were paid the first RMD by April 1, you must take the RMD by December 31.
While delaying the RMD until April 1 can cut your tax bite in the current year, please be aware that you’ll have two RMDs in the following year, which could bump you into a higher tax bracket.
The RMD rules apply to all employer-sponsored retirement plans, including profit-sharing plans, 401(k) plans, 403(b) plans, and 457(b) plans. The RMD rules also apply to traditional IRAs and IRA-based plans such as SEPs, SARSEPs and SIMPLE IRAs.
They do not apply to ROTH IRAs.
Don’t miss the deadline or you could be subject to a steep penalty.
7. Contribute to a Roth IRA or traditional IRA. A Roth gives you the potential to earn tax-free growth (not just deferred tax-free growth) and allows for federal tax-free withdrawals if certain requirements are met.
You may also be eligible to contribute to a traditional IRA. Contributions may be fully or partially deductible, depending on your income and circumstances. Total contributions for both accounts cannot exceed the prescribed limit.
There are income limits, but if you qualify, the annual contribution limit for 2020 and 2021 is $6,000, or $7,000 if you’re age 50 or older.
You can contribute if you (or your spouse if filing jointly) have taxable compensation.
For 2020 and later, there is no age limit on making regular contributions to traditional or Roth IRAs.
You can make 2020 IRA contributions until April 15, 2021 (Note: statewide holidays can impact final date).
8. College savings. A limited option called the Coverdell Education Savings Account (ESA) allows for a maximum contribution of $2,000. It must be made before the beneficiary turns 18. Contributions are not tax deductible.
Distributions are tax free if used for qualified education expenses. But beware of income limits (IRS: Coverdell Education Savings Accounts).
Any individual (including the designated beneficiary) can contribute to a Coverdell ESA if the individual’s modified adjusted gross income for the year is less than $110,000. For individuals filing joint returns, that amount is $220,000.
A 529 plan allows for much higher contribution limits, and earnings are not subject to federal tax when used for the qualified education expenses of the designated beneficiary.
As with the Coverdell ESA, contributions are not tax deductible.
9. Charitable giving. Whether it is cash, stocks or bonds, you can donate to your favorite charity by December 31, potentially offsetting any income.
Did you know that you may qualify for what’s called a “qualified charitable distribution (QCD)” if you are over 70½ years old?
A QCD is an otherwise taxable distribution from an IRA or Inherited IRA that is paid directly from the IRA to a qualified charity [Fidelity: “Donating to a charity using a qualified charitable distribution (QCD)].
A QCD may be counted toward your RMD, up to $100,000. If you file jointly, you and your spouse can make a $100,000 QCD from your own IRAs. This becomes even more valuable in light of tax reform as the higher standard deduction may preclude you from itemizing.
You might also consider a donor-advised fund. Once the donation is made, you can generally realize immediate tax benefits, but it is up to the donor when the distribution to a qualified charity may be made.
I trust you’ve found these planning tips to be helpful. Please feel free to reach out if you have any questions, or check in with your tax advisor.
Chladek Wealth Management is a fee-only financial planning and investment management firm, in Overland Park, Kansas, serving clients in Kansas City, as well as across the nation through virtual meetings.